Soldering is a metal-to-metal joining process in which solder is melted and used to connect various metals and alloys. Soldering is also termed “sweating”. Solder is tin and lead-based metal alloy that is melted with a hot iron. The iron is heated to over 600 degrees Fahrenheit and then cooled to form a solid electrical bond.
Solder is molten with the aid of a temperature sensor and an iron. It is heated to temperatures above its melting point, which is about 600 degrees Fahrenheit, causing it to melt and then cool, forming the soldered joint.
Solder is a metal alloy that is being used to shape solid, long-lasting bonds, such as in integrated circuits and copper pipe joints. It’s also available in two different forms and diameters: lead and lead-free, with diameters ranging from.032” to.062”. The flux is a component used to reinforce and enhance the mechanical properties of the solder center.
Soldering filler metals used to be lead-based (lead solder), but due to restrictions, lead-based solders are gradually being substituted with lead-free solders made of antimony, bismuth, brass, copper, indium, tin, or silver.
There are three different methods of soldering, each of which uses maximum temperature to create stronger joints:
Soft soldering (90°C – 450°C) –
With a filler metal melting point of less than 400°C, this procedure has the minimum filler metal melting point of all the soldering forms. These filler metals are normally alloys, with liquidus temperatures below 350°C and often containing lead. Soft soldering, due to the extremely low temperatures used, thermally stresses components the lowest but does not form solid joints, leaving it unsuitable for mechanical load-bearing devices. This form of solder often loses strength and melts at high temperatures, making it unsuitable for use.
Hard (silver) soldering (temperatures above 450°C) –
The connecting metal in this process is brass or silver, and it takes a blowtorch to reach the heats at which the solder substances melt.
Brazing (>450°C) –
A metal with a far higher melting point than those used in soft and hard soldering is used in this form of soldering. However, unlike hard soldering, the metal to be fused is heated rather than melted. Once all materials are sufficiently exposed to heat the soldering metal can be placed between them to melt and serve as a bonding agent.